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The New EU Automotive EMC Directive 2004/104/EC

The New EU Automotive EMC Directive 2004/104/EC

s from "e"-mark testing to an OEM specification will be much more straightforward.

Whereas the existing directive disguises the true limit lines applicable by using phrases such as "shall be at least 2 dB below the reference limit" in the text of the directive, the new edition removes any possibility of confusion and explicitly states precisely what the limits levels are. If the rewrite were purely for clarification purposes alone it would be worthwhile as 2004/104/EC is significantly easier to read than 95/54/EC. A prime example of the improvement in clarity is the well defined "immunity related functions" in the first annex of the new directive, this clearly defines what interfaces are required to be immunity tested, an area left open to some interpretation in the current edition.

WHOLE VEHICLE TESTING

Although primarily only relevant to the vehicle manufacturers OEMs, ultimately it is on-vehicle testing that is the final approval requirement for OEM line-fit products the largest market segment for any type of automotive product. Changes to vehicle tests will also have an impact on those products that are only ever tested on-vehicle, certain sensors for example.

Radiated Emissions Testing

The most significant change in 2004/104/EC for whole vehicle radiated emissions testing is the removal of the exclusion for compression-ignition engines i.e., diesel engined vehicles. In 95/54/EC only spark-ignition petrol engined vehicles are explicitly covered by the broadband radiated emissions testing. The electronics on-board most vehicle models are identical between petrol and diesel variants with the notable exception of the engine management controller. Most OEMs will have tested their diesel variants as well as their petrol versions, however, there is the option to not test diesel vehicles in the existing directive that is removed in its replacement.

The frequency range of 30 MHz–1 GHz, limit levels and test methods remain the same as the existing 95/54/EC directive for both 3-m and 10-m vehicle-to-antenna test set-ups, with the narrowband limits 10 dB below the broadband limits Figure 1. The new directive utilizes CISPR-125 for its test set-up parameters that are otherwise not defined in the document, in particular the operating mode of the vehicle is taken from CISPR-12 directly rather than quoted in the directive.



Figure 1. Vehicle broadband radiated emission limits.

Narrowband emissions has an "initial step" in 95/54/EC that permits omission of further testing if over the range 88 MHz to 108 MHz at the vehicle broadcast antenna the emission level measured is below 20 dBμV. This "initial step" option has been removed and full frequency range emissions testing for a whole vehicle is required in 2004/104/EC.

Radiated Immunity Testing

A major change for immunity testing is an increase in the upper frequency limit from 1 GHz to 2 GHz. The field strength remains at 30 V/m over 90 of the 20-MHz

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